Excretory system of human

Humans’ excretory systems are in charge of getting rid of extraneous materials and waste from the body. The kidneys, bladder, ureters, and urethra are the main organs of the human excretory system.

Filtration, reabsorption, and secretion take place in the kidney’s nephrons during the generation of urine. After blood is filtered through the glomerulus, the filtrate that is left behind is altered as it travels through the renal tubules. Urine is made up of waste materials, extra ions, and water. It is then sent to the bladder where it is stored until the body expels it.

Other organs and systems, in addition to the urinary system, are involved in the removal of waste from the human body. When we breathe, the respiratory system releases carbon dioxide, and when we defecate, the digestive system gets rid of solid waste. These systems function in tandem to keep the body’s interior environment stable and get rid of dangerous materials.



In the excretory system of vertebrates, including humans, the kidneys are essential organs. They are in charge of controlling electrolyte balance, eliminating waste, and filtering blood. The two kidneys that are normally found on either side of the spine in humans are essential for preserving the internal environment of the body.


located on the spine’s left and right sides.
located beneath the ribs.


organs shaped like beans.
consist of the functional units, millions of nephrons.

Procedure for Filtration:

Renal artery blood flow enters the kidney.
The glomerulus filters blood inside every nephron.
In the renal tubules, the filtrate is altered.

Formation of Urine:

The kidneys remove water, extra ions, and waste from the blood.
Urine is the end product.


Urine concentration can be adjusted to control water balance.
Regulate the body’s electrolyte levels (sodium, potassium, etc.).

The kidneys play a crucial role in filtering and maintaining the balance of various substances in the blood, ensuring the body’s proper functioning.


Urine is transported from the kidney to the bladder by a tube called the ureter. Each kidney contains one of the two ureters. The lower portion of the ureter is found in the pelvic region, and the higher portion is found in the abdomen.

Disorders of the ureters include:

Two ureters develop on the same kidney in a congenital (from birth) disorder known as duplication of the ureter.
Urine cannot leave the kidney due to ureteropelvic junction obstruction, which happens when the ureter and kidney are not connected.

Blockage of the ureterovesical junction: When the ureter and bladder are not connected.
Urine flow obstruction brought on by any of these conditions might result in renal calculi (kidney stones), loss of renal function, or pyelonephritis (infection-related kidney inflammation). A stent (a support to keep tubes or vessels open), a catheter (a customized tube), or surgery can be used as a form of treatment. Antibiotics are frequently recommended if an infection is discovered.

Urinary bladder

Urine is temporarily stored in the urinary bladder. It is situated under the parietal peritoneum and posterior to the symphysis pubis in the pelvic cavity. The volume of urine within the bladder and the pressure it experiences from surrounding organs affect its size and form.

Urinary bladder function

The bladder is an organ that both stores and actively excretes pee. The kidneys discharge urine into the bladder through the ureters and the ureterovesical junction.

The bladder helps people stay incontinent by managing and postponing the need to urinate. An average adult has a 400–500 ml (approximate) bladder capacity and needs to urinate four to eight times a day.

The bladder helps people stay incontinent by managing and postponing the need to urinate. An average adult has a 400–500 ml (approximate) bladder capacity and needs to urinate four to eight times a day.


The kidneys produce urine, which then flows to the rear of the bladder through two tubes known as ureters.

Being an elastic organ, the bladder can hold between 600 and 800 ml of pee due to its large volume expansion capabilities.

The act of releasing pee from the bladder is called urination.

The bladder is controlled by the central nervous system. The cerebral cortex, brain stem, and spinal cord include nerve centers that regulate urination.

During the nervous system’s maturity, learnt behaviors are what regulate micturition.

The detrusor muscle, a smooth muscle, and many layers of epithelial mucosa make up the bladder wall.

Urine flows out when the urethral sphincters (valves) relax and the detrusor muscle contracts during urination.




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