Enzymes(defination, classification with examples)

Enzymes defination

Biological compounds called enzymes, which are mostly proteins, serve as catalysts in living things. Substances known as catalysts accelerate chemical processes without getting consumed in the process. Enzymes facilitate and regulate the transformation of substrates (reactants) into products, which is a key function of enzymes in many biochemical processes. They accomplish this by accelerating the pace of a chemical reaction by reducing the activation energy needed for the reaction to occur.

Two of an enzyme’s most important properties are efficiency and selectivity. Enzymes usually catalyze a single chemical process or a family of related reactions, and they are very selective to certain substrates. Enzymes are also essential for the proper operation of biological systems since they can work in moderate environments like physiological pH and temperature.

Numerous biological activities, such as metabolism, digestion, signal transduction, DNA replication and repair, and cellular respiration, can be attributed to the involvement of enzymes. These processes are precisely regulated and controlled by the specificity and efficiency of enzymes, which guarantee that they take place in living things at the proper time and under the right circumstances.

Enzymes classification

Biological molecules called enzymes function as catalysts in living things, accelerating chemical processes without consuming any energy in the process. Enzymes are essential to many different biological processes. Enzymes are categorized according to a number of factors, such as the kind of reaction they catalyze, their structure, and their function. Enzymes are commonly categorized in the following ways:

According to Function:

Oxidoreductases: Initiate and catalyze reduction-oxidation processes.
Transfers:Move functional groups from one molecule to another.
Hydrolases:In hydrolysis processes, break bonds by adding water and acting as a catalyst.
Lyases:Without hydrolysis, add or remove groups from substrates.
Isomerases:Isomerization reactions can be catalyzed.
Ligases:Forming new bonds between two molecules is frequently done in conjunction with ATP hydrolysis.

According to Substrate:

Protein-digesting enzymes are known as proteases.
Lipases are the enzymes that hydrolyze lipids.
Amylases are the type of enzymes that hydrolyze carbs.
Enzymes known as nucleases degrade nucleic acids.

According to the Reaction Mechanism:

Enabled in the transfer of hydride ions (H-) are hydride transferases.
Proton transferases: Affected in the proton (H+) transfer process.
Participate in the transport of electrons as electron transferases.

According to Structure:

Simple Enzymes: Just protein is involved.
Conjugated Enzymes: Have a protein cofactor or prosthetic group combined with a non-protein component.

Considering the Cofactor Requirement

Apoenzymes are enzymes that lack the necessary cofactor.
Holoenzymes: Enzymes that have a cofactor attached to them.

According to Location:

Cell-based enzymes are known as intracellular enzymes.
Enzymes that are extracellular are found outside of cells.

                 A foundation for comprehending the variety of enzymes and their roles in biological systems is provided by these categories. Enzymes are very efficient and particular, and their activity is strictly controlled to guarantee that cellular activities are properly managed.

Eenzymes examples

  1. Oxidoreductases:

    • Example: Catalase
    • Function: Catalyzes the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen.
  2. Transferases:

    • Example: DNA polymerase
    • Function: Catalyzes the transfer of nucleotides during DNA replication.
  3. Hydrolases:

    • Example: Lipase
    • Function: Catalyzes the hydrolysis of lipids into fatty acids and glycerol.
  4. Lyases:

    • Example: Carbonic anhydrase
    • Function: Catalyzes the interconversion of carbon dioxide and water to bicarbonate and protons.
  5. Isomerases:

    • Example: Triosephosphate isomerase
    • Function: Catalyzes the isomerization of dihydroxyacetone phosphate to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate during glycolysis.
  6. Ligases:

    • Example: DNA ligase
    • Function: Catalyzes the joining of DNA fragments during DNA replication and repair.
  7. Proteases:

    • Example: Trypsin
    • Function: Catalyzes the hydrolysis of peptide bonds in proteins.
  8. Lipases:

    • Example: Pancreatic lipase
    • Function: Catalyzes the hydrolysis of triglycerides into fatty acids and glycerol in the digestive system.
  9. Amylases:

    • Example: Salivary amylase
    • Function: Catalyzes the hydrolysis of starch into maltose in the mouth during digestion.
  10. Nucleases:

    • Example: DNAse
    • Function: Catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphodiester bonds in DNA.

These instances highlight the many functions that enzymes play in a variety of biological processes, including the synthesis of energy, the digestion of nutrients, DNA replication, and repair. Enzymes are necessary for living things to operate correctly.

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