Carbohydrates(definition, classification, formula, food)

carbohydrates definition

Organic molecules known as carbohydrates are made up of atoms of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, frequently in the 1:2:1 ratio. They are an essential component of many physiological processes and provide living things with their main source of energy. Based on their chemical structure, carbohydrates may be divided into three primary categories: monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides.

Carbohydrates classificion

Based on their structure and the quantity of sugar units they contain, carbohydrates can be categorized. Monosaccharides, disaccharides, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides are the four primary groups of carbohydrates.


Monosaccharides are single-unit sugars that are the most basic kind of carbohydrates.
They are not hydrolyzable into smaller pieces any more.
Galactose, fructose, and glucose are a few examples.


Two monosaccharide units joined by a glycosidic bond to form disaccharides.
They are created when two monosaccharides react to produce dehydration.
Typical disaccharides consist of:
Glucose with fructose is sucrose.
Glucose with galactose is lactose
Maltose is glucose with glucose


A little number (usually three to ten) of monosaccharide molecules are joined together to form oligosaccharides.
Compared to monosaccharides and disaccharides, they are less frequent.
Certain complex carbohydrates contain oligosaccharides, which are involved in cell identification and signaling.


Complex carbohydrates made up of many monosaccharide units are called polysaccharides.
They can function as structural elements or as energy storage devices.
As examples, consider:
Starch is a polysaccharide used for storage in plants that is made up of glucose units.
Animal storage polysaccharide called glycogen is likewise composed of glucose molecules.
Cellulose is a structural polysaccharide made up of glucose units found in plant cell walls.

Fiber in the Diet:

Dietary fiber is a significant class of carbohydrates, while not being its own distinct class.
It consists of fibers, both soluble and insoluble, that the human digestive system is unable to break down using enzymes.
Fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and legumes are examples of sources.

          These groups of carbohydrates are essential for the production of energy, maintenance of cellular processes, and building blocks of living things. Their categorization is determined by the intricacy of their structural composition and monosaccharide unit composition.

Carbohydrates formula

Carbohydrates have the generic formula (CH2O)n, where “n” is the number of carbon atoms in the molecule. The ratio of carbon (C), hydrogen (H), and oxygen (O) atoms in this formula is comparable to that of water (H2O), which represents the fundamental chemical structure of carbohydrates. Monosaccharides, the simplest kind of carbohydrates, follow this equation.

For example, glucose, a common monosaccharide, has a molecular formula of C6H12O6. This fits the (CH2O)6 formula, where “n” is 6 (the number of carbon atoms).

    Remember that this formula is only a generalization and that the precise kind of carbohydrate (monosaccharides, disaccharides, or polysaccharides) and the configuration of their constituent atoms might affect the actual molecular structures of carbohydrates.

Carbohydrates food

There are many different types of meals that include carbohydrates, and a balanced diet must include them. Based on where they come from, foods high in carbohydrates can be divided into a number of categories. The following foods are high in carbohydrates:

Grains:Whole grains are great providers of fiber, complex carbs, and other nutrients. Examples of these include oats, brown rice, quinoa, barley, and whole wheat.

Cereals and Bread:Oatmeal, whole grain bread, and whole wheat bread are good sources of fiber, carbs, and frequently vital vitamins and minerals.

Noodles & Pasta:Carbohydrates may be found in whole grain products such as brown rice noodles and whole wheat pasta.

Legumes:Legumes, peas, and beans (such as kidney, black, and chickpeas) are high in protein and carbs.

Fruits:The majority of fruits have fiber and natural sugars. Apples, oranges, bananas, berries, and mangoes are a few examples.

Produce:Carbohydrates may be found in both starchy and non-starchy vegetables. Starchy vegetables include sweet potatoes, potatoes, and maize.

Dairy Goods:Lactose is a naturally occurring sugar found in milk and yogurt, which also contains carbs. For a healthy option, choose for low-fat or unsweetened varieties.

Desserts & Sweets:Desserts and sweets include carbs even if they can have a lot of additional sugar. It’s necessary to eat them sparingly.

Snack Foods:Popcorn, rice cakes, and crackers are examples of snack foods that are high in carbohydrates. Select alternatives with little processing or whole grains for increased nutritional value.

Bars of Energy:Certain energy bars are specifically made for those who are participating in sports or physical activities and need a rapid intake of carbs.

                    It is noteworthy that not every carbohydrate is made equal. Refined and highly processed carbohydrate sources are typically less healthful than whole, minimally processed meals high in fiber, vitamins, and minerals. To achieve your nutritional demands, you must eat a balanced diet that consists of a range of nutrient-dense foods from different food categories.

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